Common Adulterants and screening tests

S.No
Adulterant
Foods Commonly Involved
Diseases or Health Effects

Adulterants in food



1
Argemone seeds
Argemone oil
Mustard seeds
Edible oils and fats
Epidemic dropsy,
Glaucoma,
Cardiac arrest
2
Artificially coloured foreign seeds
As a substitute for cumin seed,
Poppy seed, black pepper
Injurious to health
3
Foreign leaves or exhausted tea leaves, saw dust artificially coloured
Tea
Injurious to health, cancer
4
TCP
Oils
Paralysis
5
Rancid oil
Oils
Destroys vitamin A and E
6
Sand, marble chips, stones, filth
Food grains, pulses etc.
Damage digestive tract
7
Lathyrus sativus
Khesari dal alone or
Mixed in other pulses
Lathyrism (crippling spastic paraplegia)

Chemical Contamination



8
Mineral oil (white oil, petroleum fractions)
Edible oils and fats,
Black pepper
Cancer
9
Lead  chromate
Turmeric whole and powdered, mixed spices
Anemia, abortion, paralysis, brain damage
10
Methanol
Alcoholic liquors
Blurred vision, blindness, death
11

Arsenic

Fruits such as apples sprayed over with lead arsenate
Dizziness, chills, cramps, paralysis, death
12

Barium

Foods contaminated by rat poisons (Barium  carbonate)
Violent peristalisis, arterial hypertension, muscular twitching, convulsions, cardiac disturbances
13

Cadmium

Fruit juices, soft drinks, etc. in contact with cadmium plated vessels or equipment. Cadmium contaminated water and shell-fish
‘Itai-itai (ouch-ouch) disease,  Increased salivation, acute gastritis, liver and kidney damage, prostrate cancer
14

Cobalt

Water, liquors
Cardiac insufficiency and mycocardial failure
15

Lead

Water, natural and processed food
Lead poisoning (foot-drop, insomnia, anemia, constipation, mental retardation, brain damage)
16

Copper

Food
Vomiting, diarrhoea
17

Tin

Food
Colic, vomiting
18

Zinc

Food
Colic, vomiting
19

Mercury

Mercury fungicide treated seed grains or mercury contaminated fish
Brain damage, paralysis, death

NOTE : Safe limits have been prescribed for above metals in different food. Continuous use of food contaminated with these metals beyond safe limits may cause these diseases


Bacterial contamination



20

Bacillus cereus

Cereal products, custards, puddings, sauces
Food infection (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea)
21

Salmonella spp.

Meat and meat products, raw vegetables, salads, shell-fish, eggs and egg products, warmed-up leftovers
Salmonellosis (food infection usually with fever and chills)
22

Shigella sonnei

Milk, potato, beans, poultry, tuna, shrimp, moist mixed foods
Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery)
23

Staphylococcus aureus

Entero-toxins-A,B,C,D or E
Dairy products, baked foods especially custard or cream-filled foods, meat and meat products, low-acid frozen foods, salads, cream sauces, etc.
Increased salivation, vomiting, abdominal cramp, diarrhoea, severe thirst, cold sweats, prostration
24

Clostridium botulinus toxins

A,B,E or F
Defectively canned low or medium-acid foods; meats, sausages, smoked vacuum-packed fish, fermented food etc.
Botulism (double vision, muscular paralysis, death due to respiratory failure)
25

Clostridium.perfringens

(Welchii) type A
Milk improperly processed or canned meats, fish and gravy stocks
Nausea, abdominal pains, diarrhoea, gas formation
26

Diethyl stilbestrol (additive in animal feed)

Meat
Sterlites, fibroid tumors etc.
27

3,4 Benzopyrene

Skoked food
Cancer
28

Excessive solvent residue

Solvent extracted oil, oil cake etc.
Carcinogenic effect
29

Non-food grade or contaminated packing material

Food
Blood clot, angiosarcoma, cancer etc.
30

Non-permitted colour or permitted food colour beyond safe limit

Coloured food
Mental retardation, cancer and other toxic effect.
31

BHA and BHT beyond safe limit

Oils and fats
Allergy, liver damage, increase in serum chloresterol etc.
32

Monosodium glutamate(flour) (beyond safe limit)

Chinese food, meat and meat products
Brain damage, mental retardation in infants
33

Coumarin and dihydro coumarin

Flavoured food
Blood anticoagulant
34

Food flavours beyond safe limit

Flavoured food
Chances of liver cancer
35

Brominated vegetable oils

Cold drinks
Anemia, enlargement of heart
36

Sulphur dioxide and sulphite beyond safe limit

In variety of food as preservative
Acute irritation of the gastro-intestinal tracts etc.
37

Artificial sweetners beyond safe limit

Sweet foods
Chances of cancer

Fungal contamination



38

Aflatoxins

Aspergillus flavus-contaminated foods such as groundnuts, cottonseed, etc.
Liver damage and cancer
39

Ergot alkaloids from Claviceps purpurea Toxic alkaloids, ergotamine, ergotoxin and ergometrine groups

Ergot-infested bajra, rye meal or bread
Ergotism (St.Anthony’s fire-burning sensation in extremities, itching of skin, peripheral gangrene)
40

Toxins from

Fusarium sporotrichioides
Grains (millet, wheat, oats, rye,etc)
Alimentary toxic aleukia(ATA) (epidemic panmyelotoxicosis)
41

Toxins from Fusarium sporotrichiella

Moist grains
Urov disease (Kaschin-Beck disease)
42

Toxins from

Penicillium inslandicum
Penicillium atricum,
Penicillium citreovirede,
Fusarium, Rhizopus,
Aspergillus
Yellow rice
Toxic mouldy rice disease
43

Sterigmatocystin from

Aspergillus versicolour
Aspergillus nidulans and bipolaris
Foodgrains
Hepatitis
44

Ascaris lumbricoides

Any  raw food or water contaminated by human faces containing eggs of the parasite
Ascariasis
45

Entamoeba histolytica

Viral

Raw vegetables and fruits
Amoebic dysentery
46

Virus of infectious

Hepatitis (virus A)
Shell-fish, milk, unheated foods contaminated with faeces, urine and blood of infected human
Infectious hepatitis
47

Machupo virus

Foods contaminated with rodents urine, such as cereals
Bolivian haemorrhagic fever

Natural Contamination



48

Flouride

Drinking water, sea foods, tea, etc.
Excess fluoride causes fluorosis (mottling of teeth, skeletal  and neurological disorders)
49

Oxalic acid

Spinach, amaranth, etc.
Renal calculi, cramps, failure of blood to clot
50

Gossypol

Cottonseed flour and cake
Cancer
51

Cyanogenetic compounds

Bitter almonds, apple seeds, cassava, some beans etc.
Gastro-intestinal disturbances
52

Polycyclic Aromatic

Hydrocarbons(PAH)
Smoked fish, meat, mineral oil-contaminated water, oils, fats and fish, especially shell-fish
Cancer
53

Phalloidine (Alkaloid)

Toxic mushrooms
Mushroom poisoning (Hypoglycemia, convulsions, profuse watery stools, severe necrosis of liver leading to hepatic failure and death)
54

Solanine

Potatoes
Solanine poisoning (vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea)
55

Nitrates and Nitrites

Drinking water, spinach rhubarb, asparagus, etc. and meat products
Methaemoglobinaemia especially in infants, cancer and tumours in the liver, kidney, trachea oesophagus and lungs. The liver is the initial site but afterwards tumours appear in other organs.
56

Asbestos (may be present  in talc, Kaolin, etc. and in processed foods)

Polished rice, pulses, processed foods containing anti-caking agents, etc.
Absorption in particulate form by the body may produce cancer
57

Pesticide residues (beyond safe limit)

All types of food
Acute or chronic poisoning with damage to nerves and vital organs like liver, kidney, etc.
58

Antibiotics (beyond safe limit)

Meats from antibiotic-fed animals
Multiple drug resistance hardening of arteries, heart disease


Simple Screening test for Detecting Adulteration in Common Food


S.No
Food article
Adulteration
Test
1
Vegetable oil
Castor oil
Take 1 ml. of oil in a clean dry test tube. Add 10 ml. Of acidified petroleum ether. Shake vigorously for 2 minutes. Add 1 drop of Ammonium Molybdate reagent. The formation of turbidity indicates presence of Castor oil in the sample.
Argemone oil
Add 5 ml, conc. HNO3 ­­to 5 ml.sample. Shake carefully. Allow to separate yellow, orange yellow, crimson colour in the lower acid layer indicates adulteration.
2
Ghee
Mashed Potato
Sweet Potato, etc.
Boil 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Cool and a drop of iodine solution. Blue colour indicates presence of Starch.  colour disappears on boiling &  reappears on cooling.
Vanaspati
Take 5 ml. Of the sample in a test tube. Add 5 ml. Of Hydrochloric acid and 0.4 ml of 2% furfural solution or sugar crystals. Insert the glass stopper and shake for 2 minutes. Development of a pink or red colour indicates presence of Vanaspati in Ghee.
Rancid stuff (old ghee)
Take one teaspoon of melted sample and 5 ml. Of HCl in a stoppered glass tube. Shake vigorously for 30 seconds. Add 5 ml. Of 0.1% of ether solution of Phloroglucinol. Restopper & shake for 30 seconds and allow to stand for 10 minutes. A pink or red colour in the lower(acid layer) indicates rancidity.
Synthetic Colouring Matter
Pour 2 gms. Of filtered fat dissolved in ether. Divide into 2 portions. Add 1 ml. Of HCl to one tube. Add 1 ml. Of 10% NaOH to the other tube. Shake well and allow to stand. Presence of pink colour in acidic solution or yellow colour in alkaline solution indicates added colouring matter.
3
Honey
Invert sugar/jaggery
1.      Fiehe’s Test: Add 5 ml. Of solvent ether to 5 ml. Of honey. Shake well and decant the ether layer in a petri dish. Evaporate completely by blowing the ether layer. Add 2 to 3 ml. Of resorcinol (1 gm. Of resorcinol resublimed in 5 ml. Of conc. HCl.) Appearance of cherry red colour indicates presence of sugar/jaggery.
2.      Aniline Chloride Test : Take 5 ml. Of honey in a porcelain dish. Add Aniline Chloride solution (3 ml of  Aniline and 7 ml. Of 1:3 HCl) and stir well. Orange red colour indicates presence of sugar.
4.
Pulses/Besan
Kesari dal(Lathyrus sativus)
Add 50 ml. Of dil.HCl to a small quantity of dal and keep on simmering water for about 15 minutes. The pink colour, if developed indicates the presence of Kesari dal.
5
Pulses
Metanil Yellow(dye)
Add conc.HCl to a small quantity of dal in a little amount of water. Immediate development of pink colour indicates the presence of metanil yellow and similar colour dyes.
Lead Chromate
Shake 5 gm. Of pulse with 5 ml. Of water and add a few drops of HCl. Pink colour indicates Lead Chromate.
6
Bajra
Ergot infested Bajra
Swollen and black Ergot infested grains will turn light in weight and will float also in water
7
Wheat flour
Excessive sand & dirt
Shake a little quantity of sample with about 10 ml. Of Carbon tetra chloride and allow to stand. Grit and sandy matter will collect at the bottom.
Excessive bran
Sprinkle on water surface. Bran will float on the surface.
Chalk powder
Shake sample with dil.HCl Effervescence indicates chalk.
8
Common spices like Turmeric, chilly, curry powder,etc.
Colour
Extract the sample with Petroleum ether and add 13N H2SO4 to the extract. Appearance of red colour (which persists even upon adding  little distilled water) indicates the presence of added colours. However, if the colour disappears upon adding distilled water the sample is not adulterated.
9
Black Pepper
Papaya seeds/light berries, etc.
Pour the seeds in a beaker containing Carbon tetra-chloride. Black papaya seeds float on the top while the pure black pepper seeds settle down.
10
Spices(Ground)
Powdered bran and saw dust
Sprinkle on water surface. Powdered bran and sawdust float on the surface.
11
Coriander powder
Dung powder
Soak in water. Dung will float and can be easily detected by its foul smell.
Common salt
To 5 ml. Of sample add a few drops of silver nitrate. White precipitate indicates adulteration.
12
Chillies
Brick powder grit, sand, dirt, filth, etc.
Pour the sample in a beaker containing a mixture of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Brick powder and grit will settle at the bottom.
13
Badi Elaichi seeds
Choti Elaichi seeds
Separate out the seeds by physical examination. The seeds of Badi Elaichi have nearly plain surface without wrinkles or streaks while seeds of cardamom have pitted or wrinkled ends.
14
Turmeric Powder
Starch of maize, wheat, tapioca, rice
A microscopic study reveals that only pure turmeric is yellow coloured, big in size and has an angular structure. While foreign/added starches are colourless and small in size as compared to pure turmeric starch.
15
Turmeric
Lead Chromate
Ash the sample. Dissolve it in 1:7 Sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and filter. Add 1 or 2 drops of 0.1% dipenylcarbazide. A pink colour indicates presence of Lead Chromate.
Metanil Yellow
Add few drops of conc.Hydrochloric acid (HCl) to sample. Instant appearance of violet colour, which disappears on dilution with water, indicates pure turmeric. If colour persists Metanil yellow is present.
16
Cumin seeds
(Black jeera)
Grass seeds coloured with charcoal dust
Rub the cumin seeds on palms. If palms turn black adulteration in indicated.
17
Asafoetida(Heeng)
Soap stone, other earthy matter
Shake a little quantity of powdered sample with water. Soap stone or other earthy matter will settle at the bottom.
Chalk
Shake sample with Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Asafoetida will settle down. Decant the top layer and add dil.HCl to the residue. Effervescence shows presence of  chalk.
18
Foodgrains
Hidden insect infestation
Take a filter paper impregnated with Ninhydrin (1% in alcohol.) Put some grains on it and then fold the filter paper and crush the grains with hammer. Spots of bluish purple colour indicate presence of hidden insects infestation

1 comment:

lg said...

Hemoglobin, a protein, is necessary for the transport and delivery of oxygen throughout

the body.
The anemia screen determines the number and characteristics of red

and white blood cells

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